Glossary - S
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A type of document binding in which the pages are stapled along one edge. See also binding types.
A smaller but representative part of a larger population being studied.
A brief test of major functional elements of a piece of software to determine if it is basically operational. See also smoke testing.
A typeface without serifs. See also serif.
A Federal law in the United States that requires strengthened corporate accounting standards for all publicly held firms.
A market research study that measures and evaluates customers’ level of satisfaction with an organization, their products, or their services. See also attitude survey, evaluation survey, opinion survey.
The color intensity of an image; a high saturation image seems bright, a low saturation image seems dull. An image with no saturation is called grayscale.
Breaking a complex task into smaller tasks, modeling the task, supporting learning, then shifting responsibility to the students.
Performance testing focused on ensuring that the application under test gracefully handles increases in workload.
An XML-based file format standard for vector graphics.
A graphical display of related information that consists of points representing a group of data, showing the relationship between two variables. Also called scatter diagram. See also plot types.
A time-sequenced plan of activities or tasks used to direct and control project execution.
See network analysis.
An approved project schedule that serves as the basis for measuring and reporting schedule performance. Also called schedule baseline. See also baseline types.
See duration compression.
Controlling changes to the project schedule.
Analyzing activity durations, activity sequences, and resource requirements to create a project schedule.
The estimated duration of a project based on the size of the project, the available resources, historical productivity data, and past experience. See also program evaluation and review technique.
The schedule efficiency ratio of earned value accomplished against the planned value, which describes what portion of the planned schedule was actually accomplished.
The variance between the actual and planned schedules.
The point in time at which work is schedule to finish on an activity. Also called planned finish date.
The point in time at which work is schedule to start on an activity. Also called planned start date.
Writing that clearly and concisely conveys complex scientific information through all media normally devoted to informing the public.
Knowledge that provides the tools to describe and explain how the world works. See also knowledge.
Any change to the project scope.
The process of influencing the factors that cause scope changes to help ensure that they are beneficial, determining that a scope change has occurred, and managing the changes if and when they occur. Also called scope change management.
See scope change control.
A progressive increase in project scope, causing more work and increases in time and budget.
Subdividing project deliverables into smaller, more manageable components to provide better control.
The ongoing process of determining and prioritizing which project requirements can be implemented, given available time and resources.
The process of progressively elaborating the work of the project, which includes developing a written scope statement that includes the project justification, major deliverables, and project objectives.
A straight line compressed into paper so it folds more easily and accurately. Also called crease.
See balanced scorecard.
A set of guidelines that describe what is being assessed, provide a scoring scale, and help the instructor correctly evaluate a student. See also rubrics.
Color that does not contain 100% of cyan, magenta, or black. Also called halftone line screen.
All or part of a computer screen saved as an image.
A software program that magnifies a portion of a computer screen.
A software program that uses synthetic language to read digital documents to the user.
A program that displays moving graphics when a computer is not in use.
An interview to qualify a candidate before meeting with a hiring authority for possible selection. See also interview.
An open source page layout tool for Linux, Mac OS X, and Windows, which offers professional publishing features.
An agile development methodology use to gain dramatic team productivity improvements. See also project management methodologies.
A graphical display of cumulative costs, labor hours, percentage of work, or other quantities, plotted against time.
The process of searching web pages for specified words and returning a list of matching documents
A program that searches web pages for specified words and returns a list of matching documents.
Legislation in the United States—specifically, Section 508 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 (29 U.S.C. 794d)—that requires Federal agencies to develop, procure, maintain, and use electronic and information technology that is accessible to people with disabilities.
A project document that describes the development strategy for security controls that will be implemented in the project. TEMPLATE
Examination and analysis of an IT system to ensure that proper security measures are in effect.
Testing to confirm that the program can restrict access to authorized personnel and that the authorized personnel can access the functions available to their security level.
Separating a market into subsets of potential customers who share common attributes.
A student’s ability to decide what to learn, how to learn it, and how to know when the learning is complete.
A small group of employees who are empowered to manage themselves and their work on a daily basis.
Learning in which the student controls the flow of course material on the Internet or CD-ROM.
A translation that attempts to convey the exact contextual meaning of the original text, considering the limitations of the target language's semantic and syntactic structures. See also translation.
The study of signs and symbols.
An interview in which topics are available for discussion but there is flexibility to pursue other issues as they arise. See also interview.
An assessment of the impact that a change will have on the expected outcome of a process or project.
A grammatically incomplete sentence. Also called fragment.
A capitalization style for headings in which only the first letter of the heading is capitalized.
See color separation.
A comma that precedes “and” or “or” in a running list of items. Also called Harvard comma, Oxford comma.
A typeface with small decorative strokes at the end of each letter. See also sans serif.
The situation created when one employee makes continued, unwelcome sexual advances or requests for sexual favors to another employee.
An estimate of what the price of a good or input would be in the absence of market distortions, such as externalities or taxes.
A Macromedia Director add-in for creating web-based highly-compressed interactive animations and movies.
An e-commerce application that allows a consumer to browse an online catalog, collect items to purchase, then check out by viewing all charges and providing payment details.
Latin for “thus.” Used with surrounding parentheses following a misspelled word to indicate that the error is the original author’s error.
Binding individual sheets of paper by stapling along one edge. Also called cleat stitch, side wire. See also binding types.
Related information set apart from the main text and usually enclosed in a box.
Verbal translation without advance preparation. See also translation.
A printed sheet that is folded one or more times to become part of publication.
Results that are strong enough to prove that the hypothesis should or should not be rejected.
A part of the test procedure, included in the Test Analysis Report, which provides pertinent information about the test. This information includes set up, file names, scripts, data, test conductor, other testers and witnesses, dates tested, pass/fail results, and Quality Assurance signoff.
A project document used to create a technical design specification document based on the listed requirements, as well as to evaluate and prepare a feasibility analysis or level of effort for the project management team to review. Once signed, this document provides the basis for negotiations about changes and modifications. TEMPLATE
An explicit comparison between two things using “like” or “as.”
Use of a project model to translate the uncertainties specified at a detailed level into their potential impact on objectives that are expressed at the level of the total project.
A computer program that tests a proposed business process and helps decision makers determine the potential benefits, costs, and risks.
Translation performed concurrently with a speaker’s presentation. See also translation.
A method of creating documentation in which all authors write document components into one source file.
See single sourcing.
See single sourcing.
A hierarchical visual or textual representation of the information on a web site.
An analysis of an organization and its internal and external environment—including strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT)—to determine where the organization is now and where it is going. See also strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats analysis.
A leadership style that adopts and/or adapts one or more leadership styles based on situational needs. See also leadership styles.
A methodology for improving process performance and boosting quality in industry.
A distribution that is not symmetrical. The result is that one tail of the frequency curve is longer than the other. The skew is titled after the longest tail; for example, if the left side has the longest tail, it is called skewed left.
An Internet service provider that offers free calling between computers and low-cost calling to regular telephones.
Using Skype to create blog entries, podcasts, and vlogs.
In the arrow diagramming method, a term used for float. See also float.
See galley proof.
Separate sheets of paper placed within the camera-ready copy.
Capital (uppercase) letters that are smaller than regular capital letters in the same font.
A very fast parallel port that allows connection of up to seven peripheral devices, like laser printers and scanners.
A quick-and-dirty test to ensure that the major functions of a piece of software work. Originated in the hardware testing practice of turning on a new piece of hardware for the first time and considering it a success if it did not catch on fire.
Screen capture software that allows the user to edit, organize, and share images.
Running a system at high load for a prolonged period of time; for example, running several times more transactions than would be expected, to identify any performance problems that appear after a large number of transactions have been executed.
Online communities that use Web sites such as LinkedIn, MySpace, and Facebook to share activities or interests.
A professional association that advances the arts and sciences of technical communication. Its members include technical writers, editors, graphic designers, multimedia artists, web and intranet page information designers, translators and others whose work involves making technical information understandable and available to those who need it.
Electronic information output, as opposed to printed output. See also hardcopy.
An aggregation of software that is designated for configuration management and treated as a single entity in the configuration management process.
The process of identifying and defining the software configuration items in a system, controlling the release and change of these items throughout the system life cycle, recording and reporting the status of configuration items and change requests, and verifying the completeness and correctness of configuration items.
Also, a Software Engineering Institute Capability Maturity Model key process area designed to establish and maintain the integrity of the software work products throughout the project's life cycle.
A project document that details plans for tracking and controlling changes to a product to maintain integrity, traceability, and accountability throughout the life cycle.
A Federally funded research and development center, based at Carnegie Mellon University, and sponsored by the U.S. Department of Defense. The SEI's core purpose is to help others make measured improvements in their software engineering capabilities. One of SEI’s initiatives is the Capability Maturity Model (CMM).
The departmental methodology that identifies the processes, activities, tasks, management responsibilities, and work products that are required for each software development and maintenance project. Deviations from the methodology require the approval of all parties who have approval rights on the project. A key objective of the methodology is to provide measurable, repeatable processes to assure that project development and maintenance methodologies are consistent throughout the departmental information systems environment.
A controlled collection of software and related documentation designed to aid in software development, use, or maintenance.
The period of time that begins when a software product is conceived and ends when the software is no longer available for use. The life cycle phases may overlap or be performed iteratively, depending on the software development approach used. See also project phase.
The controlling document for managing a software project. The plan defines the technical and managerial functions, activities, and tasks necessary to satisfy the requirements of a software project, as defined in the project agreement. Also called software development plan.
A Software Engineering Institute Capability Maturity Model key process area designed to establish reasonable plans for performing software engineering and for managing the software project.
A Software Engineering Institute Capability Maturity Model key process area designed to provide adequate visibility into actual project progress so that management can take effective actions when the project's performance deviates significantly from the plans.
A Software Engineering Institute Capability Maturity Model key process area designed to provide management with appropriate visibility into the software engineering processes being used by the project team and the work products being built.
Also, the design and implementation of design features to ensure that software requirements and specifications can be verified.
A software library that provides permanent, archival storage for software and related documentation.
A deliverable that describes all data, functional and behavioral requirements, constraints, and validation requirements for software.
A set of activities conducted with the intent of finding errors in software.
A contract awarded as a result of a solicitation that was provided to only one offeror or as a result of an unsolicited proposal.
Obtaining quotations, bids, offers, or proposals.
Documenting product requirements and identifying potential sources.
A circuit board that enables a computer to accept audio input and create audio output.
The language from which the translation originates.
Choosing from among potential vendors.
The number of individuals (direct reports) that a manager or project manager can effectively manage.
A software program that visits every site on the web, follows all of the links, and creates a catalog all of the text of every web page. Also called crawler, robot.
The binding edge of a publication.
A type of document binding that uses a plastic coil to hold the pages together. See also binding types.
An introduction to a web site that is placed before the home page and typically introduces the mission, products, and services of an organization.
The individual or group in the performing organization providing the financial resources for the project.
Two facing pages that are designed as one visual unit. Also called fatty.
Software that is secretly installed on your computer to collect information and send it to the developer.
See phase gate.
An approach used to identify groups and individuals who are actively involved in the project or whose interests may be affected, either positively or negatively, as a result of project execution or successful project completion.
Those people internal or external to the organization who are actively involved in the project or whose interests may be affected, either positively or negatively, as a result of project execution or successful project completion. See also external stakeholders, internal stakeholders.
See foil stamp.
In statistics, a measure of the spread or dispersion of a data set.
The error between the mean and the actual value.
A system that encodes a document's content and structure rather than its formatting.
4- to 6-digit codes assigned by the U.S. Department of Commerce to classify businesses.
Step-by-step instructions for completing a process or part of a process.
Assessments administered and scored in exactly the same way for all participants.
The point in time that is associated with an activity’s start.
See logical relationship.
See logical relationship.
A document primarily for use in procurement, which specifies the work requirements for a project or program. It is used in conjunction with specifications and standards as a basis for a contract, and is used to determine whether the contractor meets stated performance requirements. TEMPLATE GUIDE
Analysis of a program that is carried out without executing the program.
A method used by manufacturers to ensure quality and on-time delivery.
A result that is unlikely to have occurred by chance. See also P-value.
The mathematical science of collecting, organizing, analyzing, interpreting, and presenting numerical data.
The area at the base of the browser window which displays the address (URL) of the destination web page or the name of the file to be downloaded.
A document that provides a periodic comparison of planned performance versus actual performance.
Society for Technical Communication.
A stable condition in which change is either balanced or does not occur over time.
A graphical display of related information which uses a table to show the data values and the number of occurrences. Also called stemplot. See also plot types.
See stem-and-leaf plot.
Latin for “let it stand.” Used to indicate that text marked for deletion or change should be kept as is.
Testing to verify that the program stores data files in the correct directories and that it reserves sufficient space to prevent unexpected termination resulting from lack of space on external storage devices.
A transitional stage of team development in which team members compete to promote their ideas, roles, responsibilities, goals, and expectations for consideration. See also team development stages.
A sequence of illustrations that represent a process. GUIDE
A design technique that uses individual scenes to show the proposed sequence of elements in a production.
A tool for long-range planning that plots clients' needs and the organization's future direction, by linking business plans, cooperative ventures, and strategic operations.
A document that defines the tasks and resource allocations required to implement a strategic plan.
The process of developing plans and activities to achieve the organization’s purpose, goals, and objectives.
Thinking that anticipates potential threats and opportunities to formulate effective long-term objectives, strategies, policies, and plans.
Downloading and playing media in a continuous stream.
Audio and video transmitted continuously.
Internal factors (strengths and weaknesses) and external factors (opportunities and threats) that affect performance.
An analysis of strengths and opportunities (and how best to take advantage of them), and weaknesses and threats (and how to minimize their impact), that is instrumental in strategy formulation and selection.
Testing conducted to evaluate a system or component at or beyond the limits of its specified requirements to determine the load under which it fails and how it fails. Often this is performance testing using a very high level of simulated load. Also called load testing.
Ambitious goals that are seemingly unattainable with current resources or skills.
See press proof.
Testing based on an analysis of the internal workings and structure of a piece of software. See also white-box testing.
According to Neil Perlin (www.ocstc.org/pdf/Perlin_Structured_Authoring.pdf), text that is one of the following:
A disciplined approach to software design that follows a specified set of rules.
An interview in which interviewers ask each individual the same predetermined questions. See also interview.
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A programming language that allows a user to access information from or update a database.
A systematic, comprehensive review of the requirements, design, or implementation of a system by a group of qualified experts.
In typography, variations in appearance that comprise the faces in a type family; for example, bold, italic.
A compendium of rules and guidelines which details how to prepare documents. Styles guides typically include guidance regarding page layout, organization, headers and footers, type faces, wording preferences, and so on.
A definition of a document's appearance, specified at the beginning of an electronic document, which specifies the document's spacing, margins, typefaces, color, and so on. See also cascading style sheet.
A metric that can vary from one person to another; an opinion.
A survey question that requires a response in the participant’s own words rather than selection of an answer from a list. Also called open-ended question.
An individual who has detailed knowledge (explicit or tacit) about a subject.
A character that is set below the baseline and is slightly smaller than the surrounding text. See also superscript.
The process of identifying long-range needs and developing talented individuals inside or outside the organization to fill top-level positions in the future.
In the arrow diagramming method, the activity that departs a node. In the precedence diagramming method, the “to” activity.
A cost incurred in the past that will not be affected by any present or future decision. See also cost types.
A character that is set above the baseline and is slightly smaller than the surrounding text. See also subscript.
The movement of materials from the source to the end customer, which includes demand planning, supply planning, purchasing, manufacturing, transportation warehousing, customer service, and supply chain management.
Management of the many organizations involved in the movement of materials from the source to the end customer.
A leadership style in which the leader is friendly toward and shows concern for employees. See also leadership styles.
The continual monitoring and verification of the status of an entity and analysis of records to ensure specified requirements are being met. It may be 100%, statistically-based sampling, qualitative sampling, or the result of discussion with individuals who have first-hand knowledge. It also may include the monitoring of contractor-supplied metrics, available contractor data, sampling, or surveys. GUIDE
A study that uses questionnaires or interviews to collect data.
A visual or textual plan for a survey.
A research tool used for a survey; for example, a questionnaire or phone script.
A group selected for study, which is smaller but representative of a larger population.
Shockwave Flash file format.
Use of a word with two other words, in which the word does not agree syntactically with one or both of the other words. See also rhetorical strategies.
Online learning without a time delay (real-time) which requires student participation at specific times.
A confusing arrangement of words in a sentence. See also rhetorical strategies.
Substitution of one thing for another; for example, the use of a part for the whole. See also rhetorical strategies.
The agreement of words based on logic rather than syntax. See also rhetorical strategies.
Translation of customer requirements into comprehensive, detailed functional, performance, or design specifications, which are then used to construct the specific solution.
A project document that translates requirements into precise descriptions of the system components, interfaces, and data necessary before development and testing can begin. It is a blueprint for the development stage, based on the system structure and model established in the functional design stage. Each design section in the document describes how the design addresses the requirements, and carries through the established requirements numbering scheme. TEMPLATE - APPLICATION TEMPLATE - WEB
A system function that restricts the use of objects to certain users.
Testing conducted on a complete, integrated system that evaluates the system's compliance with its specified requirements, and that attempts to discover defects that are properties of the entire system rather than properties of its individual components.
A critical assessment of existing research on a specific question.
A conceptual model used in project management that describes the phases involved in an information system development project, from an initial feasibility study through maintenance, and eventually disposal, of the completed application.
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